KIR Typing

Successful pregnancy requires trophoblast invasion and the formation of spiral arteries in the mother’s uterus. In this process, NK cells (natural killer cells), whose functions are regulated by the signals received by receptors on the surface of these cells, are of great importance.

KIR receptors are located on the surface of NK cells. They are both activating and inhibiting polymorphic receptors. In humans, two different haplotypes of the KIR genes, A and B, are distinguished. The KIR A haplotype mainly contains inhibitory KIR receptors, while B haplotype is characterized by a large number of activating KIR receptors. KIR receptor ligands are various HLA (human leukocyte antigens) molecules.

Various studies show that women with KIR AA genotype who have partners with HLA-C C2 allele have an increased risk of preeclampsia and missed abortion.

KIR-HLAC genotyping is a genetic test that allows to assess the risks of the embryo being rejected by the maternal immune system, and thus to direct medical interventions in order to achieve a successful pregnancy.

KIR-HLAC genotyping allows to:

  • Identify the cause of recurrent miscarriages and implantation failure.
  • Decide the optimal number of embryos to transfer.
  • Prevent possible complications during pregnancy.
  • Choose a compatible donor for the future pregnant woman, in both, oocyte and sperm donation cases.

KIR-HLAC genotyping is performed on the couple’s DNAs. For this, blood sample is needed from each member of the couple.